1. Gaynor JS: Is postoperative pain management important in dogs and cats? Vet Med March Symposium:254-258, 1999.
2. Cousins MJ, Phillips GD: Acute Pain Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1986, pp.19-48.
3. Hamill RJ: The physiologic and metabolic response to pain and stress. In. Handbook of Critical Care Pain Management, Hamill RJ,Rowlingson JC (eds). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
4. Raja SN, Meyer RA, Ringkamp M, et al: Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociception. In Textbook of Pain, 4th ed. Wall PD, Melzack R (eds). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999, pp.11-58.
5. Doubell TP, Mannion RJ, Woolf CJ: The dorsal horn: state dependent sensory processing, plasticity, and the generation of pain. In Textbook of Pain, 4th ed. Wall PD, Melzack R (eds). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999, pp.165-182.
6. Muir WW: Physiology and pathophysiology of pain. In Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. Gaynor JS, Muir WW (eds). St. Louis: Mosby, 2002, pp. 13-45.
7. Muir WW, Woolf CJ: Mechanisms of pain and their therapeutic implications. JAVMA 219:1346-1356, 2001;
8. Phelps PT, Anthes JC, Correll CC: Cloning and functional characterization of dog transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1). Eur J Pharmacol 513:57-66, 2005.
9. Xie J, Price MP, Berger AL, et al: DRASIC contributes to pH-gated currents in large dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons by forming heteromultimeric channels. J Neurophysiol 87:2835-2843, 2002;.
10. Price MP, McIlwrath SL, Xie J, et al: The DRASIC cation channel contributes to the detection of cutaneous touch and acid stimuli in mice. Neuron 32:1071-1083, 2001.
11. Brauchi S, Orio P, Latorre R: Clues to understanding cold sensation: thermodynamics and electrophysiological analysis of the cold receptor TRPM8. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:15494-15499, 2004.
12. Tominaga M, Caterina MJ: Thermosensation and pain. J Neurobiol 61:3-12, 2004.
13. Kobayashi K, Fukuoka T, Obata K, et al: Distinct expression of TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1 mRNAs in rat primary afferent neurons with adelta/c-fibers and colocalization with trk receptors. J Comp Neurol 493:596-606, 2005.
14. Obata K, Katsura H, Mizushima T, et al: TRPA1 induced in sensory neurons contributes to cold hyperalgesia after inflammation and nerve injury. J Clin Invest 115:2393-2401, 2005.
15. Calixto JB, Kassuya CA, Andre E, et al: Contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family and their functions. Pharmacol Ther 106:179-208, 2005.
16. McKemy DD: How cold is it? TRPM8 and TRPA1 in the molecular logic of cold sensation. Mol Pain 1:16, 2005.
17. Harteneck C: Function and pharmacology of TRPM cation channels. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 371:307-314, 2005.
18. Numazaki M, Tominaga M: Nociception and TRP Channels. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3:479-485, 2004.
19. Melzack R: From the gate to the neuromatrix. [Review] [13 refs]. Pain Aug Suppl 6:S121-6, 1999.
20. Maciocia G: The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1989.
21. Mittleman E: Acupuncture Analgesia: Mechanisms of Action and Nervous System Effects.
22. Skarda RT: Complementary and alternative (integrative) pain therapy. In Gaynor JS, Muir WW (eds). Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002, pp. 281-328.
23. Vazquez J, Munoz M, Caceres JL: Modifications in the distribution of met-enkephalin in the limbic system of the cat brain after electroacupuncture. An immunocytochemical study. Histol Histopathol 10:577-582, 1995.
24. Lee DC, Lee MO: Endorphins, naloxone, and acupuncture. Calif Vet 24-33, 1979.
25. Lee DC, Ichiyanagi K, Lee MO, et al: Can naloxone inhibit the cardiovascular effect of acupuncture? Can Anaesth Soc J 26:410-414, 1979.
26. Mayer DJ: Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic antagonist naloxone. Brain Res 121:368-372, 1977.
27. Janssens LAA, Rogers PAM, Schoen AM: Acupuncture analgesia: a review. Vet Rec 122:355-358, 1988.
28. He L, Wang M, Gao M, et al: Expression of c-fos protein in serotonergic neurons of rat brainstem following electro-acupuncture. Acupunct Electro-Therap Res 17:243-248, 1992.
29. Chen SZ, Han JS: High frequency electroacupuncture induced changes of IP3 level in rat brain and spinal cord.
30. Holton LL, Scott EM, Nolan AM, et al: The development of a multidimensional scale to assess pain in dogs. Proceedings of the 6th ICVA 1997; 106.
31. Holton LL, Scott EM, Nolan AM, et al: Comparison on three methods used for assessment of pain in dogs. JAVMA 212:61-66, 1998.
32. Booth NH:. Nonnarcotic analgesics. In Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th ed. Booth NH, McDonald LE, (eds). Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1982, pp. 297-320.
33. MacPhail CM, Lappin MR, Meyer DJ, et al: Hepatocellular toxicosis associated with administration of carprofen in 21 dogs. JAVMA 212 (12):1895-1901, 1998.
34. Golden BD, Abramson SB: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Rheum Dis Clin Am 25:359-378, 1999.
35. Rubin BR: Specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. J Am Osteopath Assoc 99:300-301, 1999.
36. Shaw N, Burrows CF, King RR: Massive gastric hemorrhage induced by buffered aspirin in a greyhound. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33:215-219, 1997.
37. Bowersox TS, Lipowitz AJ, Hardy RM, et al; The use of a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog as a gastric protectant against aspirin- induced hemmorhage in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:401-407, 1996.
38. Dohoo S, Tasker RA, Donald A: Pharmacokinetics of parenteral and oral sustained-release morphine sulphate in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 17:426-433, 1994.
39. Machado C, Dyson D: Effects of oxymorphone and hydromorphone on isoflurane minimal alveolar concentration in dogs. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists
40. Booth NH: Neuroleptanalgesics, narcotic analgesics, and analgesic antagonists. In Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th ed. Booth NH, McDonald LE (eds). Ames: The Iowa State University Press, 1982, pp. 267-296.
41. Heel RC, Brogden RN, Speight TM, et al: Buprenorphine: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 17:81-110, 1990.
42. Rosland JH, Hole K: 1, 4-benzodiazepines antagonize opiate-induced actinociception in mice. Anesth Analg 71:242-248, 1990.
43. Hoskin PJ, Hanks GW: Opioid agonist - antagonist drugs in acute and chronic pain states. Drugs 41:326-344, 1991.
44. Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Sear JW: Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration. Vet Rec 152:675-678, 2003.
45. Robertson S, Taylor P, Dixon M, et al: The effect of buprenophine, morphine and saline on thermal thresholds in cats. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, San Francisco, 2001; 30.
46. Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Lascelles BD, et al: Changes in thermal threshold response in eight cats after administration of buprenorphine, butorphanol and morphine. Vet Rec 153:462-465, 2003.
47. Sawyer DC, Rech RC, Durham RA, et al: Dose response to butorphanol administered subcutaneously to increase viceral nociceptive threshold in dogs. Am J Vet Res 52:1826-1830, 1991.
48. Gaynor JS: Other drugs used to treat pain. In Gaynor JS, Muir WW (eds). Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002, pp. 251-260.
49. Egger CM, Duke T, Archer J, et al: Comparison of plasma fentanyl concentrations by using three transdermal fentanyl patch sizes in dogs. Vet Surg 27:159-166, 1998.
50. Schultheiss PJ, Morse BC, Baker WH: Evaluation of a transdermal fentanyl system in the dog. Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 34, No. 5:75-81, 1995.
51. Scherk-Nixon M: A study of the use of a transdermal fentanyl patch in cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:19-24, 1996.
52. Robinson TM, Kruse-Elliot KT, Markel MD, et al: A comparison of transdermal fentanyl versus epidural morphine for analgesia in dogs undergoing major orthopedic surgery. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:95-100, 1999.
53. Benson GJ, Grubb TL, Neff-Davis C, et al: Effect of medetomidine on surgically-induced endocrine responses. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Veterinary Anesthesia, August 1994; 165.
54. Tendillo FJ, Mascias A, Segura IAG, et al: Cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, xylazine, detomidine and medetomidine and their antagonist atipamezole in the pig. ACVA85-82, 1992.
55. Savola JM: Cardiovascular actions of medetomidine and their reversal by atipamezole. Acta Vet Scand 85:39-47, 1989.
56. Serteyn D, Coppens P, Jones R, et al: Circulatory and respiratory effects of the combination medetomidine-ketamine in beagles. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 16:199-206, 1993.
57. Joubert K: Ketamine hydrochloride--an adjunct for analgesia in dogs with burn wounds. J South Afr Vet Assoc 69:95-97, 1998.
58. Felsby S, Nielsen J, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al: NMDA receptor blockade in chronic neuropathic pain: a comparison of ketamine and magnesium chloride. Pain 64:283-291, 1996.
59. Wagner AE, Walton JA, Hellyer PW, et al: Use of low doses of ketamine administrared by constant rate infusion as an adjunct for postoperative analgesia in dogs. JAVMA 221:72-74, 2002.
60. Merskey H: Pharmacologic approaches other than opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 41:187-190, 1997.
61. Lacombe P, Blaise G, Loulmet D, et al: Electrophysiologic effects of bupivacaine in the isolated rabbit heart. Anesth Analg 72:62-69, 1991.
62. Badgwell JM, Heavner JE, Kytta J: Bupivacaine toxicity in young pigs is age-dependent and is affected by volatile anesthetics. Anesth 73:297-303, 1990.
63. Moller R, Covino BG: Cardiac electrophysiologic properties of bupivacaine and lidocaine compared with those of ropivacaine. A new amide local anesthetic. Anesth 72:322-329, 1990.
64. Bader AM, Datta S, Flanagan H, et al: Comparison of bupivacaine- and ropivacaine-induced conduction blockade in the isolated rabbit vagus nerve. Anesth Analg 68:724-727, 1989.
65. Gaynor JSM, K.R. Local and regional anesthetic techniques for the alleviation of perioperative pain. In Gaynor JS, Muir WW (eds). Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002.
66. Muir WW, Hubbell JAE, Skarda RT, et al: Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia, 2 ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1995.
67. Ravat F, Dorne R, Baichle JP, et al: Epidural ketamine or morphine for postoperative analgesia. Anesth 66:819-822, 1987.